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Freight forwarding, should know how to select the appropriate shipping carrier or mode of transportation, fully and effectively provide service to their customers.
Freight agents must be familiar with the scope of business, and include the following content:
Marine geography
① shall review world trade routes, port location, transit and land-locked Distribution Center;
II understand the pattern and development trend of international trade, the flow of goods.
Modes of transport type
4 kinds of modes of transport in the world shipping market, conference lines, non-conference lines, NVOCC transportation and tramp shipping.
Liner is according to predetermined schedule at specific organisations engaged in liner companies operating on the route, a common rate, fixed port. Shipper of the liner conference system, with stable freight rates, regular transport services and other benefits, but rates are generally high.
Non-liner shipping company appears on some international routes in recent years.
NVOCC is a carrier engaged in operations on a regular basis, do not operate on ships for transport by sea. Although the relationship between the actual shipper is the carrier, but the identity of the actual carrier, the shipper appeared. Its role as the principal are: assume liability arising from the carriage of goods by sea using maritime carrier, including the liner and non-liner shipping companies with services through door to door transportation to expand the scope of services. No shipping no fixed routes and schedules, can be engaged in operating on any routes, freight rates are usually negotiable.
For shippers, and choose which mode of transport in a number of ways to consider, as a cargo agent, should very carefully check the implementation of the carrier.
First, regular transport services. Transport of goods needs at regular intervals, select port fixed port, fixed rate, strictly according to the sailing schedule of the liner.
Second, the speed of transport. When the shipper in order to meet a demand for goods at specified dates to, would pay more attention to consider the problems of transport. As long as they can meet their requirements will not be considered costs of.
Third, transport costs. Transport regularity and speed was not the shipper is the major factor, transportation costs have become the most important.
Finally, the reliability of the transport. When choosing a carrier which is another important factor to consider. Prior to choosing a shipping company, independent examination of its strength and credibility of a good practice, which will reduce maritime fraud.
Finally, management and responsibility. Should ask about the shipper used by the owner or operator of the operating conditions and the burden of responsibility. The face of it, a ship owner of ship ownership, and in fact, his ship was mortgaged to the Bank and management contracts with the Bank and became ship operators. Ship operators may be the charterers on a regular basis, in accordance with the lease, the owner for unpaid rent, detaining the operator transporting goods.
Ship type
Freight forwarder must know the following characteristics of the ship:
① the ship registration and tonnage. Each ship should have a nationality, should be in some country of ship registration, and entitled to fly its flag.
② gross register tons (GRT). Gross registered tons is accounted for by deduction from gross register tons the machine room and crew quarters inhabited by the measuring volume.
③ net registered ton (NRT). Deducted from gross register tons net registered ton is occupied by machinery spaces and crew quarters inhabited by the measuring volume.
④ bulk volume. It was all ship loading space, including hatches and deck in order to load and unload cargo volume of openings.
⑤ packaging volume. It refers to the cabin space can be used to package goods.
⑥ total deadweight tonnage (DWT). It is based on the weight of tons of ship capacity. Loading capacity should be deducted from the total DWT fuel, the weight of equipment, water and food.
⑦ load line. Load line mark is said not to endanger the safety of ships can carry the major limitation of the goods. Distance from the load line to the deck is called the freeboard.
Sadly, Det Norske Veritas. Classification of marine insurance has an important role, because of the high class of ships produced by the premium paid less than low-class ship.
Freight forwarders should also be aware of the following general types of cargo ships:
① traditional liner. Ships of this type provides regular transportation services, usually carry bits or small quantities of goods. Using the ship's derricks or cranes to load and unload cargo, with manual stowage of the goods on board the ship.
Container ship or half pallet ship in second half. This type of ships carrying bulk cargo and filled containers or pallets of goods in advance, relying on forklift for stowage, loading containers on a cargo or deck that can be open.
③ full container ship